Main content

Unexpected fame: Conservation approaches to the preparatory object

Proceedings from the International Conference of the Icon Book & Paper Group, Oxford 1–2 October 2018

Edited by Abigail Bainbridge and Thomas Bower, with help from Leah Humenuck.
Design by William Bennett and Abigail Bainbridge, based on that of the Journal of the Institute of Conservation. 
Typesetting by William Bennett, with help from Nikki Tomkins.



At the start of my career, I chose book and paper as my conservation discipline as it seemed to me it encompassed almost boundless variety: documents, printed books, manuscripts, scrolls, miniatures, ephemera, wallpaper, globes, parchment, photographs, papyri, even papier mâché, architects’ models and theatre set designs. However, beyond the material aspects of these objects there is also a wealth of different purposes to be found: postage stamps, fine art watercolours, illuminated antiphonaries, private diaries. Some of these items were made to be used, some made for the public eye, some for a limited audience and some meant for no-one’s eyes at all. Although we carefully consider the material characteristics we encounter when planning our treatments, I was interested to know how much we let the raison d’être of an object affect our approach.

Thinking about a possible conference topic along these lines coincided with conserving a number of Franz Kafka’s notebooks at the Bodleian Library. Famously, Kafka asked his friend Max Brod to burn all of his manuscripts after his death, yet I found myself working to preserve every torn and ink-blotted leaf nearly a century later. This led me to consider how our interventions may colour the perceived meaning of an object, especially when we may be working directly contrary to the artist’s or author’s original intentions in attempting to preserve certain evidence. For example, if our research and treatment uncovers erased words in a literary draft, how does this intersect with the author’s control of their own legacy, as represented in their edited, approved, printed texts?

The conference topic we arrived upon for Unexpected Fame focused on how we conserve objects which were never intended for the public eye, and this theme was deliberately meant to be thought-provoking. It poses the question of how we value different types of object, but also the worth we ascribe to marginalia, crossings-out, corrections and all things amended, unfinished, or preparatory. The papers we received on this theme ranged across conservation of fine art, archives, library materials, and beyond, and revealed a wealth of fascinating projects including authors’ drafts, artists’ sketches, musical and cinematic archives, and even a giant theatre prop. The mixture is eclectic and will surely generate many interesting dialogues and further questions worth pursuing. I hope that some of these ideas will be taken on and progressed further by those who came to Oxford for the conference and those who are taking the opportunity to read these papers now.

Fiona McLees ACR
Conference Chair
Icon trustee


In 2015 the Icon Book & Paper Group held its first conference, Adapt and Evolve: an ambitious venture that included international speakers, breakout sessions with talks and demonstrations, a trade fair, and corporate sponsorship. While the event was successful, it created a huge burden on our committee and conference sub-committee in a way that wasn’t sustainable for something we wanted to do every three years. For our 2018 conference, Unexpected Fame, we wanted both to produce a conference that was high quality but also more manageable for our volunteers. We wanted to set ticket prices to break even or make a small surplus while still being low enough that it wouldn’t strain budgets, mindful that many conservators struggle to gain financial support for professional development—and we wanted speakers to be able to attend without being charged for entry. We also wanted to set templates for programmes and postprints that could be reused to streamline future conference preparation.

We delivered a smaller scale conference: no concurrent sessions, no trade fair, no conference totes (how many are in your closet already?!) or notebooks; and the programme was a small A5 booklet rather than a more elaborate publication. We set the budget conservatively, based on getting some sponsorship and selling more reduced-price and early-bird tickets rather than highest-priced tickets. We didn’t get the fanciest lunch options (though we did prioritise a constant flow of tea and coffee). We had a discount on the venue through work connections. We accidentally (!) got more sponsorship than we planned on, and chose not to do some of the things for which we initially budgeted. We did all this without significant help from the central office (as we’d needed for Adapt and Evolve), which freed up their time for other work. In the end, the conference was two days of great talks; a special evening drinks reception at the Pitt Rivers Museum; a further day of fantastic tours to places normally closed to visitors; and made a surplus of £11,000. We had approximately 30% attendance from outside the UK, and 20 new people joined Icon. We were tired afterwards, but not completely burned out.

For our next conference in 2021, we will continue our commitment to affordable tickets, and we are adding two goals: facilitating remote attendance and producing a “greener” event. Live streaming the conference will allow people to attend all or part of it in situations when travel or time off from work may be difficult; if some people choose to attend remotely rather than travel it would also lower our overall climate impact. Making more environmentally-friendly choices is the right thing to do. Some of these choices, like providing vegetarian catering only, and no extras like bags and lanyards, will also help keep the budget in control.

Finally, we are committed to providing postprints for our conferences, to provide access to the material for those who couldn’t attend, and a set of book and paper-specific papers for members, some of whom still dearly miss the book & paper issue of the Journal! What you are now looking at on your screen or holding in your hands is the manifestation of that commitment, and we hope you find it useful. I want to extend a great many thanks to all the authors for their hard work in preparing their talks and papers, and my fellow Book & Paper Group committee members for their hard work on the other end.

Abigail Bainbridge
Editor in Chief
Book & Paper Group Chair

I am delighted that the Icon Book & Paper Group is publishing its second online set of postprints from the hugely successful 2018 conference–Unexpected fame: Conservation approaches to the preparatory object. Sharing understanding and disseminating learning is an important aspect of Icon’s work as it supports one of the three pillars of our current strategy–to achieve excellence through building knowledge, high standards and valuing the profession. We are therefore extremely grateful to the hardworking and enthusiastic volunteers who delivered the conference and who have made it possible to publish the papers in this valuable online resource. I hope that Icon members and others will enjoy reading the papers and will find plenty of food for thought in these digital pages.

Sara Crofts
Chief Executive Officer, Icon




Catherine Badot-Costello
Capturing the marks of the Maestro: conservation, digitisation and preservation of material evidence in the Sir Georg Solti Archive


Irene Brückle and Maria Krämer
Spotlight on newly identified drawings in albums: Piranesi and his studio at the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe


Victoria Button and Jane Rutherston
‘By me, James Leman’: reinterpreting an album of eighteenth century designs for woven silk at the Victoria and Albert Museum


Amélie Couvrat Desvergnes
Indian drawings from the Rijksmuseum: an insight into their production, their purpose and their significance


Lucile Dessennes, Nadège Duqueyroix and Manon Tertrain-Bloch
Conservation treatments of sketches, preparatory drawings and set models at the Bibliothèque nationale de France


Margaret Holben Ellis
Unexpected FAME & unFORTUNE: the conservation consequences of celebrity


Nicole Gilroy and Andrew Honey
‘Destroyer and preserver’: the conservation of literary manuscripts by Jane Austen and Percy Bysshe Shelley


Alexandra Greathead, Lara Daniels and Beth Twinn
A closer look at Raphael’s drawings at the Ashmolean: how this has informed our view of their conservation requirements


Sue Hourigan
Christ in Majesty: John Piper’s stained glass window design for St. John’s Hospital, Lichfield


Shona Hunter and Isobel Griffin
What a performance! The preservation and photogrammetry of a giant pop-up book at the National Library of Scotland


Anna Johnson
Darwin’s pins: changing attitudes to the authorial trace in a working archive


Abigail Merritt
Preservation decision-making for the James Ivory Collection at the Morgan Library & Museum


Robert Minte
Frankenstein unbound: the conservation of Mary Shelley’s draft notebooks


Emma Nichols and Natalie Brown
‘Giving them back their voice’—the development of an in situ conservation treatment for bound twentieth-century moisture-damaged paper


Heather Norville-Day
Sir Joshua Reynolds’s sketchbook: conservation of a rare sketchbook by Sir Joshua Reynolds illustrating his period in Italy during 1749–1752


Katerina Powell
Conserving Magdalen College MS.GR.3: the ‘Musterbuch’ and more

Unexpected Fame: Conservation approaches to the preparatory object - Programme [ Download ]


Copyright and citation information

This article is published by Icon on an Open Access basis, after a 3 month embargo period, under a Hybrid Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (CC BY-NC-ND) After the embargo is over, you are free to copy and redistribute this material in any medium or format under the following terms: You must give appropriate credit and provide a link to the license (you may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way which suggests that Icon endorses you or your use); you may not use the material for commercial purposes; and if you remix, transform, or build upon the material you may not distribute the modified material without prior consent of the copyright holder.

Citation format

<Author(s)>, ‘<Article title>’ in Unexpected fame: Conservation approaches to the preparatory object. Proceedings from the International Conference of the Icon Book & Paper Group, Oxford 1–2 October 2018  (London, The Institute of Conservation: 2020), <page>–<page>.


The Institute of Conservation ('Icon') makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the 'Content') contained in its publications. However, Icon makes no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness or suitability for any purpose of the Content and disclaim all such representations and warranties whether expressed or implied to the maximum extent permitted by law. Any views expressed in this publication are the views of the authors and are not the views of Icon.